|Report/Study||Summary||Documents including WEEE flows/quantities|
|An Analysis of Lithium-ion Battery Fires in Waste Management and Recycling||EPA, 2021: The report explores the growing number of fires caused by lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in the waste management process. Data was collected by searching publicly available information on LIB fires in the waste management process. A limited number of industry experts were also interviewed. Background information on LIB chemistry and the waste process is provided for context. Incidents of non-waste LIB damage cases and existing waste incident surveys were included to shed more light on this issue.|
|2021 Economic Impact Study, U.S.- Based Scrap Recycling Industry||Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI), 2021: The economic impact analysis documents the size and scope of the recycling industry in the United States and its significant contribution to the U.S. economy, in terms of employment, tax generation, and overall economic benefit. The study confirmed the U.S. recycling industry plays a prominent role as an economic leader, job creator, and major exporter.|
|2019 Economic Impact Study, U.S.- Based Scrap Recycling Industry||Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI), 2019: This study estimates the economic contributions made by the various components of the scrap processing industry to the U.S. economy in 2019. The study defines the scrap recycling industry as firms in the private sector involved in the processing and brokerage of scrap metals, plastics, rubber, paper, textiles, glass, and electronics. The study measures the number of jobs in the sector, the wages paid to employees, the value added, and total output.The study also estimates taxes paid by the industry and its employees.|
|2019 Recycling Industry Yearbook||Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI), 2019: Yearbook of the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries with statistics on exports and imports of different scrap materials.|
|Evaluation of Exposure to Metals at an Electronics Recycling Facility||National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, 2018: The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request concerning possible employee exposures to flame retardants and metals associated with electronics at a recycling company. A team visited the facility twice in 2017 to observe operations, work practices, and working conditions, as well as to collect air, hand wipe, and blood samples for metals. Preliminary observations and recommendations to the employer and the employee representatives are provided in the report. |
HHE Report No. 2016-0242-3315.
Author(s): George R. Grimes; Catherine C. Beaucham; Jessica G. Ramsey.
|Evaluation of Exposure to Metals, Flame Retardants, and Nanomaterials at an Electronics Recycling Company||National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, 2018: The Health Hazard Evaluation Program received a request concerning possible employee exposures to flame retardants and metals at an electronics recycling company. A team visited the facility twice in 2015 to observe operations, work practices, and working conditions, as well as to collect air, hand wipe, surface wipe, blood and urine samples for metals and flame retardants. Preliminary findings and recommendations to the employer and the employee representatives are provided in the report.|
HHE Report No. 2015-0050-3308.
Author(s): Catherine C. Beaucham; Diana Ceballos; Elena H. Page; Charles Mueller; Antonia M. Calafat; Andreas Sjodin; Maria Ospina; Mark La Guardia; Eric Glassford.
|Quantity, Components, and Value of Waste Materials Landfilled in the United States||Yale University, 2018: Study that develops a detailed model characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) in the United States across the dimensions of material quantity, quality, location, and time. By principally relying on measurements of waste quantity and type that are recorded annually, the model can inform more effective, targeted interventions to divert waste materials from landfill disposal, improve local, regional, and national emission estimates, enhance dissipative loss estimates in material flow analyses, and illuminate the dynamics linking material, energy, and economic dimensions to production, consumption, and disposal cycles. Study published in the Journal of Industrial Ecology of the University of Yale.|
|USA States with Electronics Recycling Laws||National Center for Electronics Recycling (NCER), 2018: Comprehensive list of e-waste laws in the USA states|
|2017 Economic Impact Study. U.S.-Based Scrap Recycling Industry||Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI), 2017: Study commissioned to the independent economic consulting firm of John Dunham & Associates to perform an economic impact analysis to document the size and scope of the scrap recycling industry in the United States and document its significant contribution to the U.S. economy, in terms of employment, tax generation, and overall economic benefit. The study confirmed that the U.S. scrap recycling industry plays a prominent role as an economic leader, job creator, and major exporter.|
|eCycling Leadership Initiative - Sixth Annual Report||Consumer Technology Association (CTA), 2017: The report outlines the results of 2016 Initiative, where our industry has been, is today and its new path forward for sustainability. The eCycling Leadership Initiative was created in 2011 and is a collaboration between CE manufacturers, retailers, collectors, recyclers, nongovernmental organizations and governments at all levels and spearheaded by the CTA.|
|The formal electronic recycling industry: Challenges and opportunities in occupational and environmental health research||Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 2016: Study systematically reviewing the literature on occupational and environmental health hazards of formal e-recycling facilities and discuss challenges and opportunities to strengthen research in this area. |
Published in Environment International journal (Volume 95, October 2016, Pages 157-166).
Author(s): Diana Maria Ceballos; Zhao Dong.
|Scam Recycling: e-Dumping on Asia by US recyclers||Basel Action Network, 2016: Second report of the “e-Trash Transparency Project”. The purpose of the project was to conduct a tracking investigation using GPS-based geolocation devices into used, non-functional electronic equipment that is very commonly discarded by consumers and businesses: printers, flat screens (LCD) monitors, and cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors, to reveal electronic waste movement within and from the United States.|
Author(s): Eric Hopson; Jim Puckett.
|2015 Economic Impact Study. U.S.-Based Scrap Recycling Industry||Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI), 2015: Study commissioned to the independent economic consulting firm of John Dunham & Associates to perform an economic impact analysis to document the size and scope of the scrap recycling industry in the United States and document its significant contribution to the U.S. economy, in terms of employment, tax generation and overall economic benefit.|
|Washington State Electronic Products Recycling Program. Final 2015 Return Shares for Electronics Manufacturers||Washington State Department of Ecology, 2015: The E-Cycle Washington program conducted 41 sampling events in 2014 gathering data on 15,675 TVs, monitors and computers. That data was used to determine Return Share by manufacturer.|
|Washington State Electronic Products Recycling Program. Final 2014 Return Shares for Electronics Manufacturers.||Washington State Department of Ecology, 2014: The E-Cycle Washington program conducted 42 sampling events in 2013 gathering data on over 13,600 TVs, monitors and computers. That data was used to determine Return Share by manufacturer.|
|Moving Sustainable Electronics Forward:|
An Update to the National Strategy for Electronics Stewardship
|Interagency Task Force on Electronics Stewardship, EPA and others, 2014: Highlighting the progress accomplished on establishing a truly sustainable electronics stewardship strategy under the 2011 National Strategy for Electronics Stewardship (NSES), this report serves to increase the awareness of the importance of electronics stewardship and recognize the opportunities and challenges created by the exponential growth of electronics in the US.|
|Analysis of electronic waste recycling in the United States and potential application in China||Columbia University, 2014: This study analyzed the electronic waste recycling system in the U.S. as an example of established such systems in developed countries. Then, the present collecting and disposing situation of electronic waste in China was examined in detail, including e-waste collection and recycling in both formal and informal chains. The potential of applying the western electronic waste recycling systems into China was then further explored as well as the environmental and social benefits that could be hopefully achieved through this.|
Author(s): Shumeng Liu.
|Quantitative Characterization of Domestic and Transboundary Flows of Used Electronics.|
Analysis of Generation, Collection, and Export in the United States
|StEP, 2013: The analysis provides insights on the quantities of used electronics generated and collected in the United States, and exported from the United States. This study depicts the destination regions and the economic classifications of the regions for all products.|
Author(s): Huabo Duan; T. Reed Miller; Jeremy Gregory; Randolph Kirchain
|An Analysis of the Demand for CRT Glass processing in the U.S.||Kuusakoski Recycling, 2013: Study commissioned to Shaw Environmental, Inc. (Shaw), a CB&I company, to evaluate the CRT glass market in the USA, analyzing, reviewing and assessing CRT components, e-waste laws, quantities, existing and proposed CRT glass processing capacity, costs, the beneficial use of treated CRT glass as an additional management option and the environmental impacts of CRT glass processing options.|