Here you will find information on studies and initiatives focusing on Europe. Where there are country specific projects, the text “Click to see information” will be visible.

Report/StudySummaryDocuments including WEEE flows/quantities
Towards circular e-waste management: How can digitalisation help?EPC, SENS eRecycling and WEEE Forum, 2021: This Discussion Paper builds on the findings of “E-waste and the creation of a digital circular economy”, a project carried out between 2019 and 2021 that explored the role of digitalisation in improving the management of WEEE, ways to make this management more circular in the EU and worldwide, and how these efforts could be better supported via policies.
Author(s): Stefan Šipka.
Putting second-hand first to create local jobs. Guidance for municipalities to develop local re-use strategies. Zero Waste Europe and RREUSE, 2021: This short briefing aims at providing support to local municipalities to help design effective and ambitious local reuse strategies. The guidance outlines the key principles that every reuse strategy should prioritise, the benefits these strategies can bring for a municipality and highlights examples of how similar policies have been successfully implemented throughout Europe.
Author(s): Jack McQuibban (ZWE); Jana Žůrková (RREUSE); Mathieu Rama (RREUSE).
Analysis of Extended Producer Responsibility SchemesEuropean Recycling Platform (ERP), 2021: The ERP commissioned adelphi to develop an independent study that analyses the performance of different EPR schemes in European and EU countries with a focus on WEEE, waste packaging and waste batteries. It also provides recommendations for the effective implementation of existing and upcoming requirements.
Author(s): Julian Ahlers; Morton Hemkhaus; Sophia Hibler; Jürgen Hannak.
Extended Producer Responsibility organisations and their strategic role for ProducersErion and Sofies, 2021: The study compares the flows of WEEE, waste batteries and accumulators and waste packaging streams in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom, providing an overview that highlights the commonalities and noteworthy practices among the EPR organisations of these countries.
Author(s): Federico Magalini; Joséphine Courtois; Amba Concheso; Caroline Heinz.
Issues associated to photovoltaic panels and compliance with EPR legislationWEEE Forum, 2021: The paper, produced by the WEEE Forum in conjunction with its working group on PV Panels, analyses the PV market situation and the difficulties in achieving the EPR obligations laid down in WEEE legislation and offers policy recommendations.48
Review No 04/2021: 2021 EU actions and existing challenges on electronic wasteEuropean Court of Auditors, 2021: Collectively, EU Member States collect and recover more discarded electrical and electronic equipment than most of the world. But the EU risks missing its more ambitious e-waste collection targets. The review highlights the challenges in implementing existing e-waste treatment requirements; dealing with mismanagement of e-waste, illegal shipments and other criminal activities; and further increasing e-waste collection, recycling and reuse.48
A comparative study of national variations of the European WEEE directive: manufacturer’sEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021: This study investigates the effect of the WEEE directive from a manufacturer’s perspective. A case study of an e-manufacturer operating subsidiaries in several European countries and the associated producer responsibility organizations (PROs) is presented. The case study includes interviews from 17 stakeholders in 12 organizations in eight European countries. This paper contributes to both practitioners and researchers within reverse logistics and sustainability by adding knowledge from real-life context of how EPR is implemented in WEEE.
Author(s): Andersen, T. A
In-depth review of the WEEE Collection Rates and Targets in the EU-28, Norway, Switzerland, and IcelandUNU and UNITAR – co-hosting the SCYCLE Programme, 2020: Study commissioned by the WEEE Forum that highlights the factors that impede formal/official collection and concludes that, in order to achieve the minimum collection rate, Member States have to divert a high proportion of WEEE that is currently disposed of in the general waste bin, reduce most of the WEEE that is mixed with metal scrap, reduce illegal exports of WEEE and start to monitor used EEE exports to distinguish illegal WEEE from legitimate used EEE exports and report professional WEEE.
Author(s): C.P. Baldé, M. Wagner, G. Iattoni, R. Kuehr
An enhanced definition of EPR and the role of all actorsWEEE Forum, 2020: This document provides insights in what is required to update the WEEE policy approach to counter parallel, unreported, sub-standard and illegal WEEE flows and to increase reported collection and responsible recycling of WEEE. Furthermore, the WEEE Forum and its partners propose ten supporting measures to support the implementation of the All Actors Approach, which can be tailored and adopted in the way best suited to the Member States.
Study to Support Preparation of the Commission’s Guidance for Extended Producer Responsibility SchemesEunomia, 2020: Eunomia Research & Consulting Ltd (Eunomia) has been commissioned, under Framework Contract N° ENV/B.3/FRA/2017/0005 to undertake a study to support preparation of the Commission's guidance on the implementation of the general minimum requirements for extended producer responsibility schemes set out in Article 8a. This report thus also considers circumstances where alternative approaches should be used to complement - or indeed be used in place of – EPR.
Study to assess member states (MS) practices on by-product (BP) and end-of waste (EoW)DG Environment, European Commision, 2020: The scope of the study is determined by: - the mandate provided by the “Communication on the interface between chemical, product and waste legislation” (COM/2018/032 final)14 to launch a study to gain a better understanding of MS' practices in regard to the implementation and verification of provisions on EoW status as a basis for possible guidelines; - the implementation in MS of the existing Article 5 and 6 of Directive 2008/98/EC on waste in MS and the need for MS to transpose the amended provisions of these Articles into their national legislation by early July 2020, and - the mandate under the new Article 38 (1) of the revised WFD to organise a regular exchange of information and sharing of best practices among MS in relation to national BP and EoW policies and decisions facilitated by a Union-wide electronic register to be established by the European Commission.
The circular economy: Going digitalEuropean Policy Centre, 2020: The EPC Task Force on the Digital Roadmap for Circular Economy in this study explored the linkages between digitalisation and the circular economy, the opportunities created by data and digitally-enabled solutions, and the challenges associated with harnessing their full potential for the transition to a circular economy.
E-waste and raw materials: from environmental issues to business modelsIVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, 2019: The book provides teaching materials for teachers on the topic of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), raw materials and their life cycle and their importance for sustainability objectives. It introduces and explains in a popular science manner different concepts, such as critical materials, circular economy and the social and environmental aspects of e-waste. Special focus is placed on critical raw materials and urban mining.
Author(s): Jurate Miliute-Plepiene; Lena Youhanan.
E-Waste Statistics Guidelines on Classification, reporting and indicators. Second edition 2018United Nations University, ViE – SCYCLE, 2018: These guidelines have been developed and prepared to support countries in their efforts to collect and disseminate information on e-waste statistics, based on internationally approved definitions and standards. The guidelines on the classifications, measurement scheme, and indicators facilitate the implementation of harmonised concepts to measure the size of a county’s e-waste market, its transboundary e-waste movement and the e-waste recycling performance within that country. This second edition follows the same principles of the previously endorsed guidelines and is updated with more guidance material and examples for countries to measure the e-waste flows.
Author(s): Forti V.; Baldé C.P.; Kuehr R..
Holes in the Circular Economy: WEEE Leakage from Europe.
A Report of the e-Trash Transparency Project
Basel Action Network, 2018: The report reveals the findings of a two-year study in 10 EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the UK ) that followed 314 old computers, printers, and monitors in which GPS Trackers had been secretly installed to determine the rate and flows of "leakage" from the EU of consumer-generated WEEE. 19 (6%) of the tracked scrap equipment was exported to the countries of Ghana, Hong Kong, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Ukraine, outside of the EU; the flows discovered, if extrapolated, would total 352,474 metric tonnes per annum, moving from the EU to developing countries.
Author(s): Jim Puckett; Chris Brandt; and Hayley Palmer.
Commission report of 22 November 2018 on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste - Generation, treatment and transboundary shipment of hazardous waste and other waste in the Member States of the European Union (2013-2015)017">EU Commission, 2018: Waste exports and imports are governed at international level by the Basel Convention of 22 March 1989 on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The European Community is a party to this Convention and has transposed it by Council Regulation (EEC) No 259/93[1] known as the Waste Shipment Regulation. Each calendar year, each Member State submits a report on the implementation of the Convention over the previous calendar year to the Convention Secretariat. Every three years, the Commission draws up an implementation report based on the Basel reports and the EU questionnaires. This is the fifth implementation report covering the years 2013-2015. Details of the Member State reports can be found in the accompanying staff working document.48
Waste prevention in Europe — policies, status and trends in reuse in 2017European Environmental Agency (EEA), 2018: This is the fourth EEA report in a series of annual reviews of waste prevention programmes in Europe as stipulated in the European Union Waste Framework Directive (EU, 2008). This year's review focuses on reuse and covers 33 national and regional waste prevention programmes that had been adopted by the end of 2017. The report describes how reuse is addressed in the waste prevention programmes and provides data on the status of and trends in reuse systems in Europe.48
Material Flows of the Home Appliance IndustryAPPLiA (former CECED) and UNU-VIE SCYCLE, 2017: This reports provides with an overview of the circularity of the materials flows of one of Europe’s most established sectors, making this report a valuable tool for all those interested in the home appliance industry.
Author(s): Federico MAGALINI, Ruediger KUEHR, Jaco HUISMAN, Otmar DEUBZER and Deepali SINHA KHETRIWAL.
Étude sur la transposition de la directive DEEE en Europe (Transposition of the WEEE Directive in the member states)ADEME, 2016: This study is an overview of the transposition of the Directive 2012/19/EU on WEEE in the 28 Member States of the European Union by identifying the main differences between them, in order to be useful both for professionals and public authorities. A secondary objective is also to update the study presenting the implementation of the WEEE 2002 Directive by the Member States, carried out by ADEME in 2009.
Text in French. Translation not available.
Exporting consumer goods – Second-hand articles or waste.
Useful tips for dealers, carriers and relief organisations
Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN, 2016: This information brochure gives tips for distinguishing between waste and second-hand goods and contains practical advice on how to conform to the relevant environmental regulations. It aims to bring to notice the problems associated with the illegal export of waste disguised as trade in second-hand goods. 2nd updated edition; first published in 2011.
Author(s): Beat Frey; André Hauser; Simonne Rufener.
The efficient functioning of waste markets in the European Union - legislative and policy optionsEuropean Commission DG Environment by ARCADIS, Trinomics, 2016 : This study aims to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent of obstacles and regulatory failures affecting the functioning of waste markets in the EU, and thus preventing the realisation of a circular economy. The study analyses such market distortions and recommends a set of possible solutions.
Report on Environmental CrimeEnviCrimeNet, 2016: This report is primarily based on the unused materials provided to the Intelligence Project on Environmental Crime (IPEC), which was launched by the Environmental Crime Network (EnviCrimeNet) and Europol in May 2014. Then, this report results in a more indepth overview on environmental crimes and trafficking of endangered species, the problems and most relevant international legislation and treaties. As with the complimentary IPEC Report, this EnviCrimeNet Report aims to increase awareness on this important subject.48
Illegal e-waste shipments from the EU to China: Quantitative and monetary analysis of illegal shipments and its environmental, social and economic impacts.IEEP, 2015: This case study presents some of the key estimates of the scale of the illegal e-waste trade and calculates the total volumes of e-waste that have been imported in China from the EU in 2005 and 2012. This report provides an overview on the quantitative environmental impacts of informal e-waste recycling in China, including impacts on water, air, dust, soil, sediments, and plants and presents the quantitative impacts of elevated lead levels in human body and IQ score of children in China. Finally, the report provides an estimate on the EU e-waste recycling industry’s economic loss and the job losses in the EU e-waste recycling industry as a result of these illegal e-waste shipments. The research leading to these results has been carried out as part of the research project EFFACE: European Union Action to Fight Environmental Crime (
Author(s): Kristof Geeraerts; Konar Mutafoglu; Andrea Illes.
Illegal shipment of e-waste from the EU: A case study on illegal e-waste export from the EU to ChinaIEEP, 2015: This report examines the case of illegal shipments of e-waste from the EU to China and the effectiveness of EU legislation to counter these shipments. As part of its conclusions this report also presents a series of policy recommendations.The research leading to these results has been carried out as part of the research project EFFACE: European Union Action to Fight Environmental Crime (
Author(s): Kristof Geeraerts; Andrea Illes; Jean-Pierre Schweizer.
Commission report of 17 December 2015 on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste - Generation, treatment and transboundary shipment of hazardous waste and other waste in the Member States of the European Union (2010-2012)EU Commission, 2015: Waste exports and imports are governed at international level by the Basel Convention of 22 March 1989 on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The European Community is a party to this Convention and has transposed it by Council Regulation (EEC) No 259/93[1] known as the Waste Shipment Regulation. This fourth Implementation Report covers the period 2010-2012. Detailed information based on the Member States' report to the Basel Convention for 2010-2012 can be found in Sections A and B of the working document accompanying this report. In addition, Member States' replies to the Implementation Questionnaire for 2010-2012 can be found in Section E of the working document. Quantitative data and figures on generation, treatment and shipment of waste are summarised in the tables and figures of Section A of the working document. Key definitions are provided in Appendix A.1.0 to the working document. This Implementation Report also compares the replies submitted by 27 Member States for 2010-2012 to those from 2007-2009. 48
IPEC Report on Environmental Crime in EuropeEnviCrimeNet, 2015: This report represents the main outcome of the Intelligence Project on Environmental Crime (IPEC), which was launched by the Environmental Crime Network (EnviCrimeNet) and Europol in May 2014. The project's objective was to gain a better knowledge on the types of environmental crimes impacting on EU Member States (MS), their extent, and the obstacles which exist to fight these crimes. The project also aimed at identifying the involvement of organized crime groups (OCGs) and threats to the EU and at developing recommendations on how to improve the situation.
Exploring Tomorrow's Organised CrimeEuropol, 2015: This report outlines key driving factors for the evolution of serious and organised crime in the EU. The document describes these key drivers, their impact on serious and organised crime and the potential impact on individual crime areas and organised crime groups (OCGs). It does not claim to make definitive predictions or provide a complete picture of crime in the future, but rather aims to outline plausible developments and to encourage law enforcement authorities to consider and explore the potential evolution of serious and organised crime. 48
E-Waste Statistics
Guidelines of Classification, reporting and indicators. First edition
United Nations University, IAS - SCYCLE, 2015: A sound measurement framework is proposed that integrates and validates available harmonized statistical data and other non-statistical data sources into e-waste statistics. This measurement framework is presented along with a classification of e-waste. Though the classification is, at this stage, standalone, it links to multiple data sources and data formats. Finally, indicators can be constructed from the framework, which can provide a useful overview of the size of the market for electronic and electrical products within a country. In addition to the full measuring framework, minimum requirements are proposed to collect and report on e-waste statistics for countries that are embarking on this type of data gathering for the first time.
Author(s): C.P. Balde; R. Kuehr; K. Blumenthal; S. Fondeur Gill; M. Kern; P. Micheli; E. Magpantay; J. Huisman.
Challeneges in the practical implementation of EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help overcome themIMPEL, 2015: The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) publishes a report of research that looked at remaining challenges in implementing EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help to overcome them. The study includes an analysis of responses from environmental regulators across Europe on practical implementation challenges that they are facing.
Study on collection rates of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)European Commission, 2014: The aim of this study is to support the Commission in meeting the requirements of Article 7 and enhancing collection and environmental performance of the WEEE Recast in practice. This is done by developing common methodologies for the calculation of the quantities of POM WG based on comprehensive data gathering, scientific modelling, sensitivity analysis and conducting an impact assessment that analyses the potential for individual targets within collection categories. Finally, implementation difficulties of Member States and the necessity of derogations in deadlines for target achievement are analysed.
Technical Guidelines on Transboundary Movements of Electronic and Electrical Waste (e-waste), in particular regarding the distinction between waste and non-wasteBasel Convention Secretariat, 2014: These guidelines focus on clarifying aspects related to transboundary movements of e-waste and used equipment that may or may not be e-waste.] [Interpreting and deciding how the transboundary movement provisions of the Basel Convention apply to e-waste and used equipment in a transparent and consistent manner continues to be a challenge under the Basel Convention.
WEEE TRACE project (2011-2014)
Full traceability of the management of WEEE
EU Commission-EASME, 2014: co-funded by the Eco-innovation Initiative, the WEEE TRACE project intended to ensure full traceability of WEEE flows in order to raise their collection levels, guarantee these wastes flow to the appropriate treatment plants and minimize illegal exports or leaks to substandard treatment. The project run pilot experiences in Spain and in the Czech Republic and implemented the solution at the complete waste collection and treatment chain of Ecolec in Spain. These experiences benefited other European WEEE compliance schemes and waste streams with similar control and traceability requirements.
Strategic Project on Environmental CrimeEurojust, 2014: The goal of this report is to summarise the findings of the Strategic Project. It highlights the main problems encountered by the national authorities in prosecuting environmental crime and attempts to present suggestions for addressing some difficulties, particularly those linked to cross-border cooperation. Another goal of this report is to raise awareness among practitioners, policy makers and legislators of the necessity to improve cooperation within the European Union and internationally in this important area.
IMPEL – TFS Enforcement Actions III
Project Report
IMPEL, 2013: The project aims to promote and improve inspections and enforcement of waste shipments through and out of the European Union. Its objectives included carrying out inspections on waste shipments, knowledge exchange and capacity building in order to harmonise the level of enforcement and expertise within the participating 30 countries. For this purpose joint activities were carried out over six inspection periods throughout 2012 (Year 1) and 2013 (Year 2). This report covers the results for the inspection periods in both Years 1 and 2.48
Threat Assessment 2013 Environmental Crime in the EU.Europol, 2013: This in-depth Europol threat assessment follows the assessment presented in the SOCTA and aims to provide a detailed account of the threat of environmental crime in the EU. This threat assessment primarily relies on information provided by Member States and Europol's partners.48
Enforcement of the European Waste Shipment Regulation EUROSAI, 2013: Audit conducted in 8 countries on the enforcement of the EWSR (European Waste Shipment Regulation). Conclusions (main differences) and recommendations. Main international waste routes.48
Commission Staff Working Paper - Impact Assessment - Accompanying document to a legislative proposal and additional non-legislative measures strengthening the inspections and enforcement of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste.European Commission, 2013: This Impact Assessment report examines options to strengthen the inspections and enforcement of the Waste Shipment Regulation in order to effectively prevent illegal waste shipments.48
Analyzing End of Life LCD TV WEEE Flows in EuropeProceedings of EcoDesign International Symposium, 2013: Since the introduction of LCD TVs in 2005, consumers exchanged their bulky CRT television with a new set of flatter and lighter LCD television. As a result the migration to flat TVs has been steadily progressing. Considering the upcoming increase of LCD TVs in the return stream, there is a strong need to quantify the amounts generated as waste. In order to do this, the study utilizes a Sales-Stock-Lifespan model to estimate future flows of LCD TVs across twenty European countries from 2005 to 2016. Quantification of patterns in the waste stream can help designers and decision makers to anticipate on design consequences in collection and treatment before posing new design changes.
Author(s): Farzaneh Fakhredin; Jaco Huisman.
E-waste Inspection and Enforcement ManualEU, IMPEL and Basel Convention, 2012: This manual aims to offer practical guidance and background information to regulatory and enforcement officers who deal with the transboundary movements of used electrical and electronic equipment (UEEE) and electrical and electronic waste (e-waste). While actions of both export and import countries are important to effectively enforce the Basel Convention, including in relation to e-waste, the manual focuses primarily on countries of import. Manual developed in the framework of the SBC E-waste Africa project.48
Code of good practice for the re-use of (W)EEE Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM), 2012: OVAM commissioned a study with the aim of establishing specific criteria for various product categories making it possible to determine whether an electrical or electronic appliance can be re-used in an environmentally responsible way. The following objectives shall be achieved if the Code of Good Practice is properly adhered to: Improvement of the environmental score of equipment which is re-used; the prevention of exports of WEEE under the guise of second-hand goods; encouraging the re-use of WEEE which meets the re-use criteria.
Movements of Waste Across the EU's internal and external bordersEuropean Environment Agency (EEA), 2012: Regulations for transboundary waste shipment. Rising quantities of shipped hazardous and problematic waste, treatment of shipped waste and its consequences for the environment. Increase of illegal shipments. What we know about the fate of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). For non‑hazardous waste, EU legislation and market forces go hand in hand. Conclusions — the need for better reporting of waste shipment data.48
EnviCrimeNet: Initiative against trafficking illegal wasteEU - Governments of Member States: Coordinated by Europol, EnviCrimeNet started in 2011 to be an informal network connecting police officers and other crime fighters in the field of environmental crime to learn from each other about the extent and nature of environmental crime, the best practices to handle it, etc. The long-term aim is to stimulate and improve international cooperation to identify and track criminal networks operating across borders, such as the violations of the violations of the EU Waste Shipment Regulation, which include the import, export, and transit of waste products by road, water and rail, and investigations into environmental crimes in general.