Here you will find information on studies and initiatives focusing on Europe. Where there are country specific projects, the text “Click to see information” will be visible.

Report/StudySummaryDocuments including WEEE flows/quantities
Best practice Collection initiatives – BookletLIFE ECOSWEEE project, 2023: This booklet describes best practice initiatives for the collection of small waste electrical and electronic equipment and portable batteries implemented in Europe. It also evaluates the scalability and replicability, and success rate of each incentive.
Access to the detailed project report Deliverable 2.1 Best practice collection initiatives.
Commission Recommendation on improving the rate of return of used and waste mobile phones, tablets and laptopsEU Commission – DG Environment, 2023: The EU Commission has adopted a set of policy recommendations for Member States to improve and incentivise the return of used and waste mobile phones, tablets, laptops and their chargers. The recommendations aim to support national authorities to ensure maximum collection rates and subsequent re-use, repair, refurbishment and recovery of these small electronic devices.
Navigating The Cost-OfLiving Crisis: Impact on the Re-use Sector and Social Enterprises' response at the frontlineRREUSE, 2023: This article explores the multifaceted impact of the cost-of-living crisis on social enterprises and the strategies they are using to mitigate its effects on households.
Designing a digital platform to foster data-enhanced circular practices in the European solar industryJournal of Cleaner Production, 2023: Digital platforms represent a proven technology to facilitate information exchange between different actors along the value chain. Design Science Research is applied to build and evaluate an artefact for a digital platform that enables collecting comprehensive photovoltaic data at different life cycle stages by involving different solar value chain stakeholders.
Author(s): Boukhatmi, Ässia & Nyffenegger, Roger & Groesser, Stefan.
Journal of Cleaner Production, 418:137992.
Designing a digital platform to foster data-enhanced circular practices in the European solar industryJournal of Cleaner Production, 2023: Digital platforms represent a proven technology to facilitate information exchange between different actors along the value chain. Design Science Research is applied to build and evaluate an artefact for a digital platform that enables collecting comprehensive photovoltaic data at different life cycle stages by involving different solar value chain stakeholders.
Author(s): Boukhatmi, Ässia & Nyffenegger, Roger & Groesser, Stefan.
Journal of Cleaner Production, 418:137992.
Research study on developing re-use networks in EuropeHelsinki Metropolitan Area Reuse Centre (Kierrätyskeskus) by RREUSE, 2022: This report aims to analyze networks of social economy re-use operators in Europe. This study is part of the Circwaste project, funded by the EU's LIFE fund.
Current Approaches to the Digital Product Passport for a Circular EconomyWuppertal Institut, 2022: This paper brings an overview to the current development of Digital Product Passpports and a synopsis of the current activities in the spheres of businesses, policies and research. It is intended to help promote and facilitate the adoption of Digital Product Passports for the Circular Economy by facilitating collaborations and suggestions for ongoing activities.
Wuppertal Paper no. 198
Author(s): Jansen, M., Gerstenberger, B., Bitter-Krahe, J., Berg, H., Sebestyén, J., Schneider, J.
Freeriding associated with photovoltaic panels management WEEE Forum, 2022: The paper, produced by the WEEE Forum in conjunction with its working group on PV Panels, addresses the issue of free riders, i.e., entities that place PVs on the market but do not meet the extended producer responsibilities required by European legislation. Free riders -non-compliant companies - are present in most EU Member States, resulting in a s behavior results in a distortion of the market and unfair competition. 48
Challenges in the practical implementation of EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help overcome them. Report number: 2021/18(IMPEL, 2022: Implementation Challenge 2021 Report follows on from a survey focused on the practical challenges associated with the application and implementation of environmental law by practitioners across Europe. The results highlighted the challenges to implementation and the barriers to compliance, across a range of areas such as waste, water, pollution, climate change, staffing difficulties and capacity building, training and knowledge exchange. This report follows on from previous reports in 2015 and 2017.
Update of WEEE Collection Rates, Targets, Flows, and Hoarding -2021 in the EU-27, United Kingdom, Norway, Switzerland, and IcelandUNITAR – co-hosting the SCYCLE Programme, 2022: Study commissioned by the WEEE Forum that update the WEEE flows from 2010 to 2021. The study reveals that the amount of EEE POM increased from 9.8 Mt in 2010 to 13.3 Mt in 2019 (25.2 kg/inhabitant). The WEEE generated also shows an increase of 2.1 Mt, from 8.3 Mt in 2010 to 10.4 Mt (19.6 kg/inhabitant) in 2021. The documented formal collection of WEEE increased from 3.8 Mt in 2010 to 5.6 Mt (10.5 kg/inhabitant) in 2021.
Author(s): C.P. Baldé; G. Iattoni; C. Xu; T. Yamamoto.
Study on options for return schemes of mobile phones, tablets and other small electrical and electronic equipment in the EUEU Commission – DG Environment, 2022: Study to identify and conceptualise policy measures for action at the EU level to incentivise the return and take-back of small used and waste EEE, in order to ensure maximum collection rates and subsequent re-use, repair, refurbishment and recovery. The scope of the study concerns mobile phones (including smartphones and feature phones), tablets, laptops and their chargers.
Author(s): Valentina Romagnoli, Emiel de Bruijne, Pierrick Drapeau, Louis Ollion, Chretien Anaëll.
Environmental Crime in the age of climate change. Threat assessment 2022Europol, 2022: The aim of this report is to combine the analytical results of the 2021 Serious and Organised Crime Threat Assessment (SOCTA) with the operational intelligence gathered by Europol, in order to provide the most comprehensive analysis of environmental crime threats targeting the EU.
Metals for Clean Energy | Pathways to solving Europe's raw materials challengeEurometaux by KU Leuven, 2022: This study evaluates how Europe can fulfill its goal of “achieving resource security” and “reducing strategic dependencies” for its energy transition metals, through a demand, supply, and sustainability assessment of the EU Green Deal and its resource needs . This report has been written by KU Leuven and commissioned by Eurometaux, Europe’s metals association.
Author(s): Liesbet Gregoir; Karel van Acker.
Building a circular economy: The role of information transferEPC, 2021: This discussion paper illustrates what the green and digital twin transition could mean in practice by focusing on the role of digitalisation in enabling information transfer, a central piece of the puzzle for creating a circular economy in Europe. It explores the current and prospective practices with information transfer across value chains and how EU policies can help create an enabling environment that encourages the use of data and stimulates the development and deployment of digital solutions.
Author(s): Stefan Šipka and Annika Hedberg.
Characterizing plastics from large household appliances: Brominated flame retardants, other additives and density profilesEMPA Materials Science & Technology, 2021: This paper presents the results of a study conducted to investigate whether the practice of recycling the plastic streams from large household appliances without decontamination can be continued after the introduction of the 1000 mg/kg threshold value for the sum of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the 2019 recast of the European POP regulation.
Published in Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 177, 2022, 105956.
Author(s): Andreas Bill; Arthur Haarman; Michael Gasser; Heinz Böni; Matthias Rösslein; Patrick A. Wäger.
Towards circular e-waste management: How can digitalisation help?EPC, SENS eRecycling and WEEE Forum, 2021: This Discussion Paper builds on the findings of “E-waste and the creation of a digital circular economy”, a project carried out between 2019 and 2021 that explored the role of digitalisation in improving the management of WEEE, ways to make this management more circular in the EU and worldwide, and how these efforts could be better supported via policies.
Author(s): Stefan Šipka.
Putting second-hand first to create local jobs. Guidance for municipalities to develop local re-use strategies Zero Waste Europe and RREUSE, 2021: This short briefing aims at providing support to local municipalities to help design effective and ambitious local reuse strategies. The guidance outlines the key principles that every reuse strategy should prioritise, the benefits these strategies can bring for a municipality and highlights examples of how similar policies have been successfully implemented throughout Europe.
Author(s): Jack McQuibban (ZWE); Jana Žůrková (RREUSE); Mathieu Rama (RREUSE).
Threat Assessment 2013 Environmental Crime in the EU.
Updated in 2021
Europol, 2021: This in-depth Europol threat assessment follows the assessment presented in the SOCTA and aims to provide a detailed account of the threat of environmental crime in the EU. This threat assessment primarily relies on information provided by Member States and Europol's partners. The original assessment dates from 2013 and has been reviewed in 2021.48
Analysis of Extended Producer Responsibility SchemesEuropean Recycling Platform (ERP), 2021: The ERP commissioned adelphi to develop an independent study that analyses the performance of different EPR schemes in European and EU countries with a focus on WEEE, waste packaging and waste batteries. It also provides recommendations for the effective implementation of existing and upcoming requirements.
Author(s): Julian Ahlers; Morton Hemkhaus; Sophia Hibler; Jürgen Hannak.
Extended Producer Responsibility organisations and their strategic role for ProducersErion and Sofies, 2021: The study compares the flows of WEEE, waste batteries and accumulators and waste packaging streams in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom, providing an overview that highlights the commonalities and noteworthy practices among the EPR organisations of these countries.
Author(s): Federico Magalini; Joséphine Courtois; Amba Concheso; Caroline Heinz.
Commission Staff Working Document Impact Assessment - Accompanying the document Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on shipments of waste and amending Regulations (EU) No 1257/2013 and (EU) No 2020/1056European Commission, 2021: This Impact Assessment report considers how to facilitate shipments of waste for recycling in the EU to support the transition to a circular economy. It also explores ways to reduce the export of waste, for example through better control, measures against illegal shipments and action to avoid potential adverse effects on the environment and public health of shipments of waste to third countries.48
Issues associated to photovoltaic panels and compliance with EPR legislationWEEE Forum, 2021: The paper, produced by the WEEE Forum in conjunction with its working group on PV Panels, analyses the PV market situation and the difficulties in achieving the EPR obligations laid down in WEEE legislation and offers policy recommendations.48
Job creation in the re-use sector: Data insights from social enterpriseRREUSE, 2021: Based on first-hand experience and expertise provided by the wider RREUSE network, the data was drawn from RREUSE’s annual member survey and several semi-structured interviews for the year 2019. The statistics show that social enterprises active across a diverse range of re-use oriented activities on average create 70 jobs per 1,000 tonnes of material collected. Looking at product-specific re-use focused activities such as electricals, 140 jobs per 1,000 tonnes collected are created.
Review No 04/2021: 2021 EU actions and existing challenges on electronic wasteEuropean Court of Auditors, 2021: Collectively, EU Member States collect and recover more discarded electrical and electronic equipment than most of the world. But the EU risks missing its more ambitious e-waste collection targets. The review highlights the challenges in implementing existing e-waste treatment requirements; dealing with mismanagement of e-waste, illegal shipments and other criminal activities; and further increasing e-waste collection, recycling and reuse.48
A comparative study of national variations of the European WEEE directive: manufacturer’sEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research, 2021: This study investigates the effect of the WEEE directive from a manufacturer’s perspective. A case study of an e-manufacturer operating subsidiaries in several European countries and the associated producer responsibility organizations (PROs) is presented. The case study includes interviews from 17 stakeholders in 12 organizations in eight European countries. This paper contributes to both practitioners and researchers within reverse logistics and sustainability by adding knowledge from real-life context of how EPR is implemented in WEEE.
Author(s): Andersen, T. A
Assessment of priorities in critical material recovery from Waste Electrical and Electronic EquipmentResources Policy, 2020: A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine weights and fuzzy numbers to account for input data uncertainties is developed and is illustrated for determination of critical metal recovery priorities from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in Europe.
Author(s): Sue M. Grimes; David Maguire.
Availability upon payment.
WEEE in metal scrap. Issues associated with the treatment of WEEE as metal scrap and how to address themWEEE Forum, 2020: A report commissioned by WEEE Forum in 2020 estimates that in 2018 in EU (EU28 plus Norway, Iceland and Switzerland) approximately 2.1 kg/inhabitant of WEEE is in metal scrap and not declared as WEEE. In this paper, the WEEE Forum explains why WEEE that is collected and treated with metal scrap gives rise to all sorts of issues, in particular failure in the attainment of the collection targets set by the Directive and improper treatment of the WEEE.48
Novel indicators to better monitor the collection and recovery of (critical) raw materials in WEEE: Focus on screensResources, Conservation and Recycling Journal, 2020: This study proposes indicators to improve WEEE flow in Europe monitoring beyond the current overall weight-based approach, including complementary flows and treatment performance. A case study focused on the screen category in France is presented.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2020, Volume 157;
Author(s): Rachel Horta Arduin, Fabrice Mathieux, Jaco Huisman, Gian Andrea Blengini, Carole Charbuillet, Michelle Wagner, Cornelis Peter Baldé, Nicolas Perry.
In-depth review of the WEEE Collection Rates and Targets in the EU-28, Norway, Switzerland, and IcelandUNU and UNITAR – co-hosting the SCYCLE Programme, 2020: Study commissioned by the WEEE Forum that highlights the factors that impede formal/official collection and concludes that, in order to achieve the minimum collection rate, Member States have to divert a high proportion of WEEE that is currently disposed of in the general waste bin, reduce most of the WEEE that is mixed with metal scrap, reduce illegal exports of WEEE and start to monitor used EEE exports to distinguish illegal WEEE from legitimate used EEE exports and report professional WEEE.
Author(s): C.P. Baldé, M. Wagner, G. Iattoni, R. Kuehr
An overview of solar photovoltaic panels’ end-of-life material recyclingEnergy Strategy Reviews, 2020: This review focuses on the current status of solar panel waste recycling, recycling technology, environmental protection, waste management, recycling policies and the economic aspects of recycling. It also provides recommendations for future improvements in technology and policy making.
Energy Strategy Reviews, Volume 27, 100431
Author(s): Md. Shahariar Chowdhury; Kazi Sajedur Rahman; Tanjia Chowdhury; Narissara Nuthammachot; Kuaanan Techato; Md. Akhtaruzzaman; Sieh Kiong Tiong; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Nowshad Amin.
An enhanced definition of EPR and the role of all actorsWEEE Forum, 2020: This document provides insights in what is required to update the WEEE policy approach to counter parallel, unreported, sub-standard and illegal WEEE flows and to increase reported collection and responsible recycling of WEEE. Furthermore, the WEEE Forum and its partners propose ten supporting measures to support the implementation of the All Actors Approach, which can be tailored and adopted in the way best suited to the Member States.
Study on quality standards for the treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)EU Commission by Umweltbundesamt GmbH, 2020: A proposal with key elements of additional minimum treatment requirements for WEEE is elaborate based on an analysis of the environmental, economic, health and social impacts of setting additional treatment requirements under EU WEEE legislation and the analysis of the situation in the Member States.
Text in French available within the document.
Author(s): Tesar, Maria; Karigl, Brigitte; Lampert, Christoph; Neubauer, Christian; Oliva, Judith; Wolf, Julia.
Study to Support Preparation of the Commission’s Guidance for Extended Producer Responsibility SchemesEunomia, 2020: Eunomia Research & Consulting Ltd (Eunomia) has been commissioned, under Framework Contract N° ENV/B.3/FRA/2017/0005 to undertake a study to support preparation of the Commission's guidance on the implementation of the general minimum requirements for extended producer responsibility schemes set out in Article 8a. This report thus also considers circumstances where alternative approaches should be used to complement - or indeed be used in place of – EPR.
Study to assess member states (MS) practices on by-product (BP) and end-of waste (EoW)DG Environment, European Commision, 2020: The scope of the study is determined by: - the mandate provided by the “Communication on the interface between chemical, product and waste legislation” (COM/2018/032 final)14 to launch a study to gain a better understanding of MS' practices in regard to the implementation and verification of provisions on EoW status as a basis for possible guidelines; - the implementation in MS of the existing Article 5 and 6 of Directive 2008/98/EC on waste in MS and the need for MS to transpose the amended provisions of these Articles into their national legislation by early July 2020, and - the mandate under the new Article 38 (1) of the revised WFD to organise a regular exchange of information and sharing of best practices among MS in relation to national BP and EoW policies and decisions facilitated by a Union-wide electronic register to be established by the European Commission.
The circular economy: Going digitalEuropean Policy Centre, 2020: The EPC Task Force on the Digital Roadmap for Circular Economy in this study explored the linkages between digitalisation and the circular economy, the opportunities created by data and digitally-enabled solutions, and the challenges associated with harnessing their full potential for the transition to a circular economy.
E-waste and raw materials: from environmental issues to business modelsIVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, 2019: The book provides teaching materials for teachers on the topic of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), raw materials and their life cycle and their importance for sustainability objectives. It introduces and explains in a popular science manner different concepts, such as critical materials, circular economy and the social and environmental aspects of e-waste. Special focus is placed on critical raw materials and urban mining.
Author(s): Jurate Miliute-Plepiene; Lena Youhanan.
Study on the implementation of product design requirements set out in Article 4 of the WEEE Directive. The case of re-usability of printer cartridges EU Commission – DG Environment by OAKDENE HOLLINS Research&Consulting, 2018: The objective of this study is to assess the implementation of Article 4 of the Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment through the case of re-using laser and ink-jet printer cartridges. The project has produced targeted recommendations for the consideration of the Commission to address weaknesses in the Voluntary Agreement associated with Article 4, and wider measures to improve the robustness of both the new and the reused cartridge markets.
Best environmental management practice for the waste management sector - Learning from frontrunnersJoint Research Centre (JRC), 2018: On the basis of an in-depth analysis of the actions implemented by frontrunner organisations in the waste management sector, this report describes a set of best practices with significant potential for broad uptake. They are called Best Environmental Management Practices (BEMPs) and aim to help local authorities in charge of waste management and waste management companies move towards a circular economy.
Author(s): Antonopoulos, I. S; Gaudillat, P; Dri, M; Canfora, P.
Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for Waste Treatment - Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU Joint Research Centre (JRC), 2018: This document forms part of a series presenting the results of an exchange of information between EU Member States, the industries concerned, non-governmental organisations promoting environmental protection and the Commission, to draw up, review, and where necessary, update BAT reference documents as required by Article 13(1) of the Directive.
Author(s): Antoine Pinasseau, Benoit Zerger, Joze Roth, Michele Canova, Serge Roudier.
Ecodesign of electronic devices.
E-learning course
Consortium of ECOSIGN project, 2018: Training course for industrial designers to reduce environmental impact during the product life-cycle from the earliest stage of design, manufacturing, packaging, transport, disposal and recycling, avoiding the risk of uncoordinated product planning that could lead to a negative impact for the environment. The e-course consists of 13 Units.
ECOSIGN is a Sector Skills Alliance co-funded by the EU Erasmus+ Programme.
Author(s): Andrej Sarjaš.
Holes in the Circular Economy: WEEE Leakage from Europe.
A Report of the e-Trash Transparency Project
Basel Action Network, 2018: The report reveals the findings of a two-year study in 10 EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the UK ) that followed 314 old computers, printers, and monitors in which GPS Trackers had been secretly installed to determine the rate and flows of "leakage" from the EU of consumer-generated WEEE. 19 (6%) of the tracked scrap equipment was exported to the countries of Ghana, Hong Kong, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Ukraine, outside of the EU; the flows discovered, if extrapolated, would total 352,474 metric tonnes per annum, moving from the EU to developing countries.
Author(s): Jim Puckett; Chris Brandt; and Hayley Palmer.
Commission report of 22 November 2018 on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste - Generation, treatment and transboundary shipment of hazardous waste and other waste in the Member States of the European Union (2013-2015)EU Commission, 2018: Waste exports and imports are governed at international level by the Basel Convention of 22 March 1989 on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The European Community is a party to this Convention and has transposed it by Council Regulation (EEC) No 259/93[1] known as the Waste Shipment Regulation. Each calendar year, each Member State submits a report on the implementation of the Convention over the previous calendar year to the Convention Secretariat. Every three years, the Commission draws up an implementation report based on the Basel reports and the EU questionnaires. This is the fifth implementation report covering the years 2013-2015. Details of the Member State reports can be found in the accompanying staff working document.48
Analysis of material efficiency aspects of personal computers product groupJoint Research Centre (JRC), 2018: The report summarises the findings of the analysis of material-efficiency aspects of the personal-computer (PC) product group, namely durability, reusability, reparability and recyclability. It also aims to identify material-efficiency aspects. Special focus was given to the content of EU critical raw materials (CRMs) in computers and computer components, and how to increase the efficient use of these materials, including material savings thanks to reuse and repair and recovery of the products at end of life.
Publications Office of the European Union, 2018, JRC105156.
Author(s): Tecchio, P., Ardente, F., Marwede, M., Christian, C., Dimitrova, G. and Mathieux, F.
Waste prevention in Europe — policies, status and trends in reuse in 2017European Environmental Agency (EEA), 2018: This is the fourth EEA report in a series of annual reviews of waste prevention programmes in Europe as stipulated in the European Union Waste Framework Directive (EU, 2008). This year's review focuses on reuse and covers 33 national and regional waste prevention programmes that had been adopted by the end of 2017. The report describes how reuse is addressed in the waste prevention programmes and provides data on the status of and trends in reuse systems in Europe.48
Material Flows of the Home Appliance IndustryAPPLiA (former CECED) and UNU-VIE SCYCLE, 2017: This reports provides with an overview of the circularity of the materials flows of one of Europe’s most established sectors, making this report a valuable tool for all those interested in the home appliance industry.
Author(s): Federico MAGALINI, Ruediger KUEHR, Jaco HUISMAN, Otmar DEUBZER and Deepali SINHA KHETRIWAL.
The Link between e-Waste and GDP—New Insights from Data from the Pan-European RegionResources Journal, 2017: Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is difficult to sustainably manage. One key issue is the challenge of planning for WEEE flows as current and future quantities of waste are difficult to predict. To address this, WEEE generation and gross domestic product (GDP) data from 50 countries of the pan-European region were assessed. A high economic elasticity was identified, indicating that WEEE and GDP are closely interlinked.
Resources 2017, 6, 15.
Author(s): Kusch, S.; Hills, C.D.
Rethinking economic incentives for separate collectionZero Waste Europe and Reloop Platform, 2017: The study, produced by Rezero, aims at identifying waste streams where the introduction of proper economic incentive through public policies could contribute to the highest collection levels. The scope of the work covers an analysis of different economic instruments and their application on several waste streams in OECD countries. Our recommendations throughout this report are generally orientated towards the EU.
Environmental compliance assurance and combating environmental crimeScience for Environment Policy, 2016: The papers provide important insights for policymakers and for enforcement on four particular themes: the value of emerging networks of enforcement bodies, the need to exploit new technologies and strategies, the use of appropriate sanctions and the added value of a compliance assurance conceptual framework reflecting the interaction between compliance promotion, compliance monitoring and enforcement.
Science for Environment Policy, Thematic Issue 56. Produced for the European Commission DG Environment by the Science Communication Unit, University of the West of England.
WEEE2 guidance document: Large-scale stationary industrial tools (“LSSIT”) European WEEE Registers Network, 2016: This document provides guidance and clarification for the interpretation of the exclusion LSSIT for the Directive 2012/19/EU (WEEE2).
Étude sur la transposition de la directive DEEE en Europe (Transposition of the WEEE Directive in the member states)ADEME, 2016: This study is an overview of the transposition of the Directive 2012/19/EU on WEEE in the 28 Member States of the European Union by identifying the main differences between them, in order to be useful both for professionals and public authorities. A secondary objective is also to update the study presenting the implementation of the WEEE 2002 Directive by the Member States, carried out by ADEME in 2009.
Text in French. Translation not available.
Analysis of durability, reusability and reparability – Application to dishwashers and washing machinesJoint Research Centre (JRC), 2016: This report aims to analyse specific material efficiency aspects, such as durability, reusability and reparability, for the two product groups: washing machines (WM) and dishwashers (DW). Durability, reusability and reparability aim at extending the lifetime of products and of materials and can hence be seen as valuable strategies for mitigation of raw materials supply risks.
Publications Office of the European Union, 2016. JRC102632
Author(s): Tecchio, P.; Ardente, F.; Mathieux, F.
Study on harmonisation of the format for registration and reporting of producers of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) to the national register and on the frequency of reportingEU Commission by TRASYS Group, 2016: This report describes the proposed harmonised data structure and format for registration and reporting and also elaborates recommendations.The methodology includes desk research, survey followed by interviews and organisation of a stakeholders’ workshop in Brussels.
Author(s): Dijana Spasojevic; Eric Swalens.
Best practices in Recycled PlasticsDIGITALEUROPE, 2016: This paper aims to showcase current best practices of early adopters to inspire other producers and also to highlight ongoing issues to policy-makers. After an initial assessment of the market size and expected trends, the paper briefly looks at opportunities and challenges in using recycled plastics and presents a number of industry case studies from the ICT industry, ranging from printer cartridges to printers and closed-loop recycling in monitors.
Exporting consumer goods – Second-hand articles or waste.
Useful tips for dealers, carriers and relief organisations - 2nd updated edition
Federal Office for the Environment in Switzerland (FOEN), 2016: This information brochure gives tips for distinguishing between waste and second-hand goods and contains practical advice on how to conform to the relevant environmental regulations. It is directed principally at traders, carriers and relief organisations. 2nd updated edition; first published in 2011.
Author(s): Beat Frey; André Hauser; Simonne Rufener.
The efficient functioning of waste markets in the European Union - legislative and policy optionsEU Commission - DG Environment, 2016 : This study aims to provide a better understanding of the nature and extent of obstacles and regulatory failures affecting the functioning of waste markets in the EU, and thus preventing the realisation of a circular economy. The study analyses such market distortions and recommends a set of possible solutions.
EnviCrimeNet: Initiative against trafficking illegal wasteEU - Governments of Member States, 2016: Coordinated by Europol, EnviCrimeNet started in 2011 to be an informal network connecting police officers and other crime fighters in the field of environmental crime to learn from each other about the extent and nature of environmental crime, the best practices to handle it, etc. The long-term aim is to stimulate and improve international cooperation to identify and track criminal networks operating across borders, such as the violations of the violations of the EU Waste Shipment Regulation, which include the import, export, and transit of waste products by road, water and rail, and investigations into environmental crimes in general.
IPEC Report on Environmental Crime in EuropeEnviCrimeNet, 2015: This report represents the main outcome of the Intelligence Project on Environmental Crime (IPEC), which was launched by the Environmental Crime Network (EnviCrimeNet) and Europol in May 2014. The project's objective was to gain a better knowledge on the types of environmental crimes impacting on EU Member States (MS), their extent, and the obstacles which exist to fight these crimes. The project also aimed at identifying the involvement of organized crime groups (OCGs) and threats to the EU and at developing recommendations on how to improve the situation.
Illegal e-waste shipments from the EU to China: Quantitative and monetary analysis of illegal shipments and its environmental, social and economic impacts.IEEP, 2015: This case study presents some of the key estimates of the scale of the illegal e-waste trade and calculates the total volumes of e-waste that have been imported in China from the EU in 2005 and 2012. This report provides an overview on the quantitative environmental impacts of informal e-waste recycling in China, including impacts on water, air, dust, soil, sediments, and plants and presents the quantitative impacts of elevated lead levels in human body and IQ score of children in China. Finally, the report provides an estimate on the EU e-waste recycling industry’s economic loss and the job losses in the EU e-waste recycling industry as a result of these illegal e-waste shipments. The research leading to these results has been carried out as part of the research project EFFACE: European Union Action to Fight Environmental Crime (
Author(s): Kristof Geeraerts; Konar Mutafoglu; Andrea Illes.
Illegal shipment of e-waste from the EU: A case study on illegal e-waste export from the EU to ChinaIEEP, 2015: This report examines the case of illegal shipments of e-waste from the EU to China and the effectiveness of EU legislation to counter these shipments. As part of its conclusions this report also presents a series of policy recommendations.The research leading to these results has been carried out as part of the research project EFFACE: European Union Action to Fight Environmental Crime (
Author(s): Kristof Geeraerts; Andrea Illes; Jean-Pierre Schweizer.
Study on WEEE recovery targets, preparation for re-use targets and on the method for calculation of the recovery targetsEU Commission, 2015: This study supports the Commission in meeting the requirements of Article 11(6) of Directive 2012/19/EU . Results showed that the new recovery targets to be applied from 2018 onwards (based on EU6) maintain a similar level of ambition compared to the ones introduced from 2015 onwards (based on EU10). Additionally, an implementation of separate re-use/preparation for re-use targets faces several difficulties but re-use/ preparation for re-use generally should be promoted due to its overall benefits.
Author(s): BiPRO - Nicole Seyring, Maximilian Kling, Jakob Weißenbacher; BIO by Deloitte (BIO) - Mathieu Hestin, Louise Lecerf; United Nations University (UNU) - Federico Magalini, Deepali Sinha Khetriwal, Ruediger Kuehr.
Commission report of 17 December 2015 on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste - Generation, treatment and transboundary shipment of hazardous waste and other waste in the Member States of the European Union (2010-2012)EU Commission, 2015: Waste exports and imports are governed at international level by the Basel Convention of 22 March 1989 on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The European Community is a party to this Convention and has transposed it by Council Regulation (EEC) No 259/93, known as the Waste Shipment Regulation. This fourth Implementation Report covers the period 2010-2012 and also compares the replies to those from 2007-2009. 48
Exploring Tomorrow's Organised CrimeEuropol, 2015: This report outlines key driving factors for the evolution of serious and organised crime in the EU. The document describes these key drivers, their impact on serious and organised crime and the potential impact on individual crime areas and organised crime groups (OCGs). It does not claim to make definitive predictions or provide a complete picture of crime in the future, but rather aims to outline plausible developments and to encourage law enforcement authorities to consider and explore the potential evolution of serious and organised crime. 48
E-Waste Statistics
Guidelines of Classification, reporting and indicators. First edition
United Nations University, IAS - SCYCLE, 2015: A sound measurement framework is proposed that integrates and validates available harmonized statistical data and other non-statistical data sources into e-waste statistics. This measurement framework is presented along with a classification of e-waste. Though the classification is, at this stage, standalone, it links to multiple data sources and data formats. Finally, indicators can be constructed from the framework, which can provide a useful overview of the size of the market for electronic and electrical products within a country. In addition to the full measuring framework, minimum requirements are proposed to collect and report on e-waste statistics for countries that are embarking on this type of data gathering for the first time.
Author(s): C.P. Balde; R. Kuehr; K. Blumenthal; S. Fondeur Gill; M. Kern; P. Micheli; E. Magpantay; J. Huisman.
Challenges in the practical implementation of EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help overcome themIMPEL, 2015: The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law (IMPEL) publishes a report of research that looked at remaining challenges in implementing EU environmental law and how IMPEL could help to overcome them. The study includes an analysis of responses from environmental regulators across Europe on practical implementation challenges that they are facing.
Direct download
Study on collection rates of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)European Commission, 2014: The aim of this study is to support the Commission in meeting the requirements of Article 7 of the WEEE Directive and enhancing collection and environmental performance of the WEEE Recast in practice. This is done by developing common methodologies for POM and WEEE generated calculations, conducting an impact assessment and analysing implementation difficulties.
Author(s): UNU, Statistics Netherlands (CBS), BIO by Deloitte and Regional Environmental Center (REC).
Technical Guidelines on Transboundary Movements of Electronic and Electrical Waste (e-waste), in particular regarding the distinction between waste and non-wasteBasel Convention Secretariat, 2014: These guidelines focus on clarifying aspects related to transboundary movements of e-waste and used equipment that may or may not be e-waste.] [Interpreting and deciding how the transboundary movement provisions of the Basel Convention apply to e-waste and used equipment in a transparent and consistent manner continues to be a challenge under the Basel Convention.
Recycling of WEEE plastics: a reviewJournal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 2014: Current EU Directives require a steep reduction of WEEE plastics (WEEP) going to landfill. Mechanical, thermal, and feedstock recycling of WEEP are analysed and some options confronted. Plastics recycling should be weighed against the eventual risks related to their hazardous ingredients, mainly legacy brominated fire retardants and heavy metals.
Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 415–434.
Author(s): Buekens, A.; Yang, J.
Strategic Project on Environmental CrimeEurojust, 2014: The goal of this report is to summarise the findings of the Strategic Project. It highlights the main problems encountered by the national authorities in prosecuting environmental crime and attempts to present suggestions for addressing some difficulties, particularly those linked to cross-border cooperation. Another goal of this report is to raise awareness among practitioners, policy makers and legislators of the necessity to improve cooperation within the European Union and internationally in this important area.