Holes in the Circular Economy: WEEE Leakage from Europe.A Report of the e-Trash Transparency ProjectBasel Action Network, 2018: The report reveals the findings of a two-year study in 10 EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the UK ) that followed 314 old computers, printers, and monitors in which GPS Trackers had been secretly installed to determine the rate and flows of "leakage" from the EU of consumer-generated WEEE. 19 (6%) of the tracked scrap equipment was exported to the countries of Ghana, Hong Kong, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Ukraine, outside of the EU; the flows discovered, if extrapolated, would total 352,474 metric tonnes per annum, moving from the EU to developing countries.
Author(s): Jim Puckett; Chris Brandt; and Hayley Palmer.
Manual on
Export/transboundary shipment of “used goods”
Lebensministerium, Austria, 2014: The classification as waste or nonwaste depends essentially on the EU legislation on waste, implemented in the Austrian Federal Waste Management Act (“Abfallwirtschaftsgesetz 2002”). This manual provides information – based on current legislation - on the distinction between waste and non-waste and offers guidance on how to comply with the relevant environmental legislation or respectively the WEEEOrdinance with regard to transboundary shipments of used electric and electronic equipment (EEE).
TransWaste ProjectEuropean Regional Development Fund-ERDF, 2012: The project is about the formalisation of informal sector activities in collection and transboundary shipment of wastes in and to Central and Eastern Europe. Using a multi-stakeholder approach a set of recommendations have been developed such as the implementation of a Transnational Action Plan concerning the handling with informal waste activities the development of a Business Plan for an enterprise to integrate informal waste pickers and formalise their work as well as the integration of informal waste pickers into the existing formal waste collection.