|Holes in the Circular Economy: WEEE Leakage from Europe.A Report of the e-Trash Transparency Project||Basel Action Network, 2018: The report reveals the findings of a two-year study in 10 EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Spain, and the UK ) that followed 314 old computers, printers, and monitors in which GPS Trackers had been secretly installed to determine the rate and flows of "leakage" from the EU of consumer-generated WEEE. 19 (6%) of the tracked scrap equipment was exported to the countries of Ghana, Hong Kong, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Ukraine, outside of the EU; the flows discovered, if extrapolated, would total 352,474 metric tonnes per annum, moving from the EU to developing countries.
Author(s): Jim Puckett; Chris Brandt; and Hayley Palmer.
Export/transboundary shipment of “used goods”
|Lebensministerium, Austria, 2014: The classification as waste or nonwaste depends essentially on the EU legislation on waste, implemented in the Austrian Federal Waste Management Act (“Abfallwirtschaftsgesetz 2002”). This manual provides information – based on current legislation - on the distinction between waste and non-waste and offers guidance on how to comply with the relevant environmental legislation or respectively the WEEEOrdinance with regard to transboundary shipments of used electric and electronic equipment (EEE).|
|TransWaste Project||European Regional Development Fund-ERDF, 2012: The project is about the formalisation of informal sector activities in collection and transboundary shipment of wastes in and to Central and Eastern Europe. Using a multi-stakeholder approach a set of recommendations have been developed such as the implementation of a Transnational Action Plan concerning the handling with informal waste activities the development of a Business Plan for an enterprise to integrate informal waste pickers and formalise their work as well as the integration of informal waste pickers into the existing formal waste collection.|